Lendület-project (MTA-ELTE ‘Lendület’ Neuroethology of Communication Research Group, 2017-2022)
Comparative mammalian brain imaging: a neuroethological approach to the emergence of lexical representations
Lexical items (words) are the basic building blocks of human languages, but previous research hardly ever found items with lexical features in nonhuman vocal communicative systems, even though several species are capable of learning and discriminating arbitrary sound sequences, associating vocalizations with specific meanings, or producing human-like lexical items after extensive training. Recently, we presented the first fMRI study on how dog brain processes human words, demonstrating that dogs, similarly to humans, are capable of storing lexical representations (i.e. arbitrary associations of sound sequences to meanings) independently of paralinguistic features, such as intonation (Andics et al. 2016, Science). This research suggests that human linguistic capacity cannot be understood in isolation. A broad comparative perspective to what brain mechanisms various species have in common with humans for vocal social processing is essential for a better understanding of the contributions of biological and cultural evolution to the emergence of linguistic competence.
How and under what ontogenetic conditions do lexical representations emerge in nonhuman brains? How do mammals acquire and consolidate new meanings, and how do they fit them in their pre-existing lexico-semantic network? What are the organizing principles of learnt, vocally encoded meanings, and how do they differ across conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations, and across semantic domains (Binder 2009)? Do mammals share the representations of basic biological meanings (Ehret 2010) in vocal utterances, and can this hard-wired semantics be overruled by learnt sound-to-meaning associations? Are dogs in a better position than other mammals that had not been under a similar selective pressure to fit into the human social environment, to learn the meanings of human words?
The comparative approach
We hypothesize that the shared capacity of dogs and humans to store lexical representations is based on an ancient capacity present in the last common ancestor of the two species. We therefore expect that certain lexical processing capacities, which are shared among dogs and humans, are highly similar to those in other mammals. The domestic pig is an evolutionarily distant relative of both dogs and humans, with a domestication history that is considerably shorter than that of dogs, and that followed a very different trajectory. Nevertheless, if socialized by humans, pigs are also receptive to interspecific social cues, and can follow ostensive-referential communicative cues such as human pointing or gaze direction. When kept as pets, dogs and pigs occupy a similar ecological niche of living with humans. Extending comparative neuroscientific studies on vocal social functions to pigs could therefore shed light on the biological and cultural determinants of lexical processing, revealing how similar or variable neural representations can get in species with a highly different phylogenetic history, once the environment is stabilized, and potentially highly controlled.
VOIMA project (ERC Starting Grant, 2021-2026)
Voice and speech perception across mammals: a comparative study of humans, dogs and pigs
Vocalizations of any mammal carry prominent cues about the inner states and identity of the vocalizer. Voice is also a prevalent channel for humans’ recently emerged communication system, speech. Recent evidence suggests that certain human auditory brain specializations and mechanisms, relevant for voice and speech perception, reflect abrupt shifts in human capacities compared to other primates.
Do these brain specializations for voice and speech perception reflect human-specific predispositions and are thus human-unique, or are they the consequence of rapid evolutionary adaptations or developmental accommodations of the ancient voice perception system to recent demands imposed by the presence of speech? I hypothesize that in general voice perception mechanisms are conserved across mammals, and provide a neuronal niche in which specializations for human voice and speech perception may arise also in non-humans.
The comparative neuroscientific approach
The case of companion animals provides an unparalleled model system to study the possible evolutionary and experiential effects of the presence of speech on the mammalian voice perception system. Dogs and pigs are phylogenetically distant, highly vocal species that live, when kept as companions, with humans. VOIMA combines ethology and brain imaging (EEG/fMRI/HD-DOT) to compare voice and speech processing in humans, dogs and pigs: WP1 seeks evidence for selective processing of conspecific voices, human voice, and speech. WP2 explores the mechanisms and specific sensitivities for inner state coding, voice identity recognition and vocalizer normalization, from con- and heterospecific voice. WP3 tests how sensitivities to human voice and speech emerge across dog breed types, in neonate dogs, pigs, wolves and wild boars, and in input-manipulated developing dogs. Revealing how adaptation to the human social niche shapes domestic mammals’ voice perception, this project will provide new insights on how speech shaped human voice perception.
Attila Andics (group leader), firstname.lastname@example.org
Bunford N, Hernández-Perez R, Farkas E, Cuaya L, Szabó D, Szabó Á, Gácsi M, Miklósi Á, Andics A (in press) Comparative Brain Imaging Reveals Analogous And Divergent Patterns Of Species- And Face-Sensitivity In Humans And Dogs. The Journal of Neuroscience
Gábor A, Gácsi M, Szabó D, Miklósi Á, Kubinyi E, Andics A (2020) Multilevel fMRI adaptation for spoken word processing in the awake dog brain. Sci Rep 10, 11968 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68821-6 [pdf] [link]
Pérez Fraga P, Gerencsér L, Lovas M, Újváry D, Andics A (2020) Who turns to the human? Comparing pigs’ and dogs’ behaviour in the unsolvable task paradigm. Animal Cognition. doi: 10.1007/s10071-020-01410-2 [pdf] [link]
Boros M, Gábor A, Szabó D, Bozsik A, Gácsi M, Szalay F, Faragó T, Andics A (2020) Repetition enhancement to voice identities in the dog brain Sci Rep 10, 3989 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60395-7 [pdf] [link]
Szabó D, Gábor A, Gácsi M, Faragó T, Kubinyi E, Miklósi Á and Andics A (2020) On the Face of It: No Differential Sensitivity to Internal Facial Features in the Dog Brain. Front. Behav. Neurosci. 14:25. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2020.00025 [pdf] [link]
Andics A, Faragó T (2019) Voice perception across species. In: S. Frühholz, P. Belin (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Voice Perception. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (pp. 363-392). doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198743187.013.16 [link]
Gerencsér L, Pérez Fraga P, Lovas M, Újváry D, Andics A (2019) Comparing interspecific socio-communicative skills of socialized juvenile dogs and miniature pigs. Animal Cognition 22: 917, doi:10.1007/s10071-019-01284-z [pdf] [link]
Szabó D, Czeibert K, Kettinger Á, Gácsi M, Andics A, Miklósi Á, Kubinyi E (2019) Resting-state fMRI data of awake dogs (Canis familiaris) via group-level independent component analysis reveal multiple, spatially distributed resting-state networks. Scientific Reports 9: 15270. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-51752-2 [pdf] [link]
Andics A, Miklósi Á (2018) Neural processes of vocal social perception: Dog-human comparative fMRI studies, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 85: 54-64. [pdf] [link]
Gerencsér L, Bunford N, Moesta A, Miklósi Á (2018) Development and validation of the Canine Reward Responsiveness Scale –Examining individual differences in reward responsiveness of the domestic dog, Scientific Reports, 8: 4421. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-22605-1 [pdf] [link]
Bunford N, Andics A, Kis A, Miklósi Á, Gácsi M (2017) Canis familiaris As a Model for Non-Invasive Comparative Neuroscience, Trends in Neurosciences, 40(7): 438-452. [pdf] [link]
Andics A, Gábor A, Gácsi M, Faragó T, Szabó D, Miklósi Á (2016) Neural mechanisms for lexical processing in dogs. Science, 353: 1030-1032. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3777 [pdf] [link]